Kasargod Dwarf(Kullan) Cow(Pashu)
Indian desi (native) breeds of cattle are declining in numbers at a very rapid rate. There were nearly 75 breeds of cattle in India currently only 37 recognized breed of cattle remain in India as of today, most are endangered, most of them are reared by adivasis (indigen) or native people. Different breeds have their set of qualities to cope with the local habitat and weather. Basically cows, most animals and even humans living in hot and humid climate tend to become smaller.
This breed is found in Mangalore, Kasargod and some other parts of Karnataka. Coorg also host this type of cows. Some centuries back this type of cows were also found in Kannur and other northern parts of Kerala, it was know as (sahya pashu – sahyadri hill cows). However almost all the cows have vanished because of slaughter and mainly because of (AI)Artificial Insemination. AI is killing all our native breeds, slaughter houses are secondary AI has to be much feared.
Small cows are excellent milkers because their feed to milk ratio is high as compare to other hybrid cows. Kasargod cow in the picture below; during peak milking time gave 2.5 to 3 litres of milk in a day. Also all Indian breed of cows produce A2 milk where as western or hybrid produce A1 milk. No clear research papers are published but definitely A2 has better taste, flavour and is also healthy. A1 milk is associated with diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases.
Hump on the Indian cows help them to adjust the daily water requirement also the dewlaps(skin on the neck) helps them to cope with the extreme heat, keep most diseases away and also calve without any difficulty. On the other hand hybrid and western cows suffer horribly in Indian climate and in the long run they become non-sustainable and ultimately are send for slaughter(Common phenomena in Kerala). All the first generation hybrid cows born to native breeds are averagely healthy and good milkers however after two or three generation things become terrible, If mothers are not healthy then new born calf will definitely be in bad shape. Also in AI line breeding and inbreeding will be common because most semen are few years old, chances are mother and baby will get the same bull semen, which causes various complication.